from training.npr.org: https://training.npr.org/2019/12/18/how-they-made-it-the-ill-be-seeing-you-elephant-episode/
In this series, NPR’s Training team asks reporters, editors, engineers and producers, “How did you make that?”
It’s no secret that pre-taped interviews on public radio are edited, sometimes considerably. What’s OK to take out? And when is it better to leave something in?
Smile, remember to breathe and be prepared to improvise when you’re a reporter on a two-way.
What if the pronunciation of a name has you stumped — and you have to say it on air? Here’s how to do it accurately and understandably.
Here’s what we’ve learned from our experimentation with 360 audio recording.
This step-by-step guide shows a straightforward method for mixing audio stories, podcasts and more.
Whether you’re making a podcast or audio documentary, this in-depth guide will help you improve the quality of your mixes.
All you need is a story idea, an open mind and some friends.
Use these prompts and quick tips to get your creative process started.
It’s important to begin any storytelling project with intention. Before you start making things, you should have a clear sense of who you’re trying to reach, what you’re trying to say and the scope of your project on all platforms. This project blueprint is designed to help. Fill it out at the beginning of the
Conversations between nonjournalists combine the thrill of eavesdropping with the intimacy of the kitchen table — but they can be hard to pull off. We have some tips.
Print and audio journalism exist in the same world — but the terrain is different. Let this serve as your map.
The Morning Edition host came to NPR from newspapers. His advice on audio: Forget everything you know. But don’t!
The three-act structure is the most basic organization a story can have. The number three has a sort of magic to it. It feels unsettled, so it propels things forward. Beginning, middle, end. This, that and the other thing.
Using data from the NPR One app, we identified specific approaches to telling audio stories that can inspire your audience to sit up and listen.
You return from a long day reporting in the field — only to realize you didn’t record ambience. Rats! This post will help ensure that you get the sound you need to tell great stories.
To build a strong vocal presence for audio storytelling, you should practice a daily warm-up routine that involves body, breath and voice.
Our readers have lots of questions about audio production. Find answers here about headphones, levels, microphones and more.
On-scene, in-the-moment narration can add depth and urgency to an audio story. But doing great “stand-ups” requires thinking beyond the clichéd “I’m standing here…” approach.
This post will help you identify problematic audio, prevent the most common problems and recognize when it’s time to call for help.
The producers, reporters and engineers who create the audio stories we love make a lot of magic happen behind the scenes. In seamlessly stitching together discrete pieces of audio, they can craft rich scenes that transport listeners. But being an audio editing wizard is not enough to tell great stories. You also need to have highly “trained ears”
Pitching is hard. Every one of us has gotten excited about an idea … and been shot down. We compiled the best tips for getting to “yes” — and some common pet peeves — from NPR editors.
There are many ways audio can go wrong: a press conference recording with a buzz, hard-to-understand phone tape or lots of “p-pops” — the list goes on. Can you still use the audio in your story? This basic criteria will you decide.
A good radio hooks your audience. Here are five examples of great intros — and why they work.
Over the summer, Sally did a callout on social media asking where public media journalists get their story ideas. The responses were fantastic and spanned everything from standard journalistic practices to creative and humorous anecdotes. We asked her to some of those ideas in this post. It’s a great starting point for the next time you’re
The first question I get from station reporters and editors about NPR One is almost always, “What type of local stories perform well?” It isn’t an easy question to answer. There are lots of factors to consider when we analyze what works well on NPR One. But a good place to start is by looking
At this hyper-competitive moment in audio, it’s essential to grab listeners at the very beginning of a story. But how do you do it? Check out these explanations of different narrative strategies.
Liz Jones (@KUOWLiz), a reporter with KUOW, contacted us with an idea after the Which Mic Should I Use? post published. She recommended we get the input of various reporters in the field to hear about what mics they are using and why. Good idea! Here’s what a few public radio reporters told us they
Producers are busy people. We juggle multiple projects: we’re in the middle of Project A when Project B ends and Project C gets started. We often don’t take the time to fully prepare new projects before we start them, especially when it comes to creating the production workflow! We then discover, sometimes well into the
How can we use music to tell audio stories well, without manipulating listeners or sensationalizing our journalism?
Most audio producers and reporters heading into the field will have the basics: a handheld recorder of some kind, a pair of headphones, and one or two microphones. But which mic should you use? This is one of the most common questions about field recording and the decision can be confusing. We usually make the
Editing is a specialized craft in itself. This post compiles NPR Training’s tips and tricks to help audio editors guide and elevate stories.
Too often, editing only happens after a story has been reported and written. But the best editing begins even before a story is assigned. What should the process look like? Check out this step-by-step guide.
For many radio reporters — even some of the most experienced ones — the prospect of talking on-air with a host can be daunting. How can you clearly deliver your reporting when you don’t have total control over the questions and you can’t read from a script?
You can learn a lot from a few simple line drawings! NPR’s Robert Smith explains the structure of audio news stories — from basic to complex.
Helping people listen critically to stories requires more than simply pushing “play.”
We can all get better at talking to communities that are not our own. It requires listening, humility and the willingness to investigate our own biases.
Joe Richman created Radio Diaries in 1996. He began giving tape recorders to “ordinary” people and working with them to tell stories about their own lives. Joe also produces audio histories. A distinguishing feature of his work is the lack of an authoritative, reportorial voice; Joe is a master of the non-narrated audio story. His work has
With so many different ways to tell stories, I created this checklist of questions to keep things organized. The list is a work in progress — often more aspirational than actual. Pitch time Is this a radio story, web story or both? (Consider content and turnaround time) What visuals would make this an exciting story
In June of 2015, WWNO in New Orleans launched a podcast called Katrina: The Debris. They called it a “pop-up podcast.” It was time-bound; ultimately, a thirteen-episode experiment. The occasion was the tenth anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. As national news outlets flooded into New Orleans months before the anniversary, WWNO wanted to own the big story
If you’ve ever covered something like a school board meeting and thought, “There’s no way I can make this interesting,” let Linda Lutton prove you wrong. This post is based on a Third Coast Festival presentation she gave at the 2015 PRPD conference about how to infuse documentary-style radio into everyday reporting (even when you think you don’t have
What is an Audio Truth Killer? Is the sound in your piece supporting (or subduing) the message your piece is conveying to your listeners? Kevin Wait, former Production Specialist on the NPR Training team, hosted NPR’s “Audio Truth Killers” webinar and explores how the technical production of sound influences the editorial message in a piece. View the webinar below and/or scroll
If you haven’t listened to a story and all of its sonic elements, you haven’t edited it.
This post was first published on the website Storybench. For scenes to succeed in any medium, they have to engage your senses. You smell the diesel fumes, feel the breeze on your cheeks, hear the anger in the collective voice of a crowd of protesters. These appeals to the senses are important, but often secondary
Correspondent Howard Berkes joined the NPR staff in 1981. He has covered space shuttle disasters, mine safety violations, the Unabomber and neo-Nazi groups, the rural American West, and many Olympics, just to name a few of his many subjects. His reporting has taken him all over the world. STEP ONE: Prepare Tap local knowledge. Consult local public media
The techniques music engineers use to quality-check and deliver final mixes are not limited to music production. Journalists can use them, too. Here are tips to heighten your listening awareness and improve the technical quality of your audio stories. Variety is the spice of life Studio engineers need their mixes to sound great on all playback devices so they
Loss of your best-interview-ever recording due to a “media error” message from your recorder can be devastating. Compact Flash cards, SDHC cards, and Memory Sticks rarely fail; however, your treatment of these media cards can have a dramatic effect on your sound-gathering success. Most audio loss due to media error can be avoided by practicing these habits.
You have characters. Check. You have a sense of what you want to record for ambient sound and active tape (the close-up sound of people doing things). Check. You’ve researched the topic and the people in the story. And, you’ve got a rough outline of how you think the story might be told. Check. Check.
Note: This post is adapted from a presentation Russell has created on fact checking. What is a fact? Just because someone tells you something doesn’t mean it’s true. You also can’t trust that other sources, reporters and/or news outlets (even the New York Times) have gotten it right before you. Trust, but verify People don’t
As radio storytellers, we know the power recorded sound has to transport listeners to a specific time and place. The popularity of YouTube has made it easy to locate a vast amount of historic audio-visual content, but not everything is on YouTube or easily surfaced through Googling. Here are several other places to look for
This is printable and shareable guide to vox-gathering for NPR. You can use it as your own tip sheet or send it out to a producer who has been assigned to get vox. What do I ask? One uniform question – or series of questions. The vox question should be made clear in your assignment.
Active sound makes an audio story sparkle. It is sound that isn’t stuck in the background. It’s up-front. It shows character and action. Here’s how to capture it.
Korva Coleman has been an NPR newscast anchor for 25 years. She originally compiled these recommendations for PRNDI’s 2015 conference in Salt Lake City. They are intended for any public radio newscaster, in big markets and small. 1. Prepare yourself before you get to work What news do you listen to? What websites and newspapers do
On NPR’s National Desk, four bureau chiefs edit news stories from around the country. They are Andrea DeLeon (Northeast), Russell Lewis (South), Ken Barcus (Midwest), and Jason DeRose (West). This is their outline of the process for pitching a story for a news magazine such as All Things Considered or Morning Edition – and getting the
Note: If you’d like to watch the webinar version of this material, scroll to the bottom of the page. We make dozens of small decisions while writing an audio story. Many of them pertain to how the reporter/narrator gets into and out of tape. The most common way we write into tape goes something like
1. You are the keeper of the guest list. NPR founding mother Susan Stamberg once compared a good radio show to a good dinner party. In both scenarios the host’s role is to lead his or her guests in an engaging conversation. As a booker, you manage the invite list to that party. It’s your
This is the technical lingo you need to know as an audio producer.
This information was gathered and written up by Sara Sarasohn, Managing Director for NPR One, in the spring of 2015. At the bottom of this page, you can watch our webinar for member stations. We are just at the beginning of understanding how to use the metrics in NPR One to learn about effective radio techniques.
These editing tips come from Sara Sarasohn, a longtime NPR editor and producer who has worked at All Things Considered, the Arts Desk, and NPR One, where she leads the app’s editorial efforts. As you read this, imagine you are speaking to your reporter. Each of these recommendations is a question or line to use during
For this correspondent, learning to write for radio required a special style of script-writing.
Say it’s 9:00am and you just got an assignment. It has to be on All Things Considered by 4:00pm. You may have to throw your dreams of perfection out the window, but you can still produce a satisfying story, if you use strategies like the ones described below. These tips are adapted from former NPR
Robert Garcia is Executive Producer of NPR’s Newscast Unit. Here, he shares examples of stand-out news spots, and why they work. Deceptively simple A very simple Memorial Day remembrance story. Seemingly. Craig Windham masterfully weaves in the music and atmospherics from the Arlington Cemetery ceremony with clips from the President’s speech and beautiful, crisp
This is an excerpt of a piece written by former NPR editor Jonathan Kern. It has been lightly edited. One of the under-appreciated challenges in putting a radio report together is ensuring that the story has a logical structure. All too often, reporters assemble their pieces by collecting their best tape, and then writing copy that
The two elements of a story are tape and copy. There should be a nearly equal balance between the two, at least in terms of their importance to the story. One can think of tape as the photographs, although that’s not a perfect analogy. Perhaps the analogy of two dancers executing a complicated tango; both
The following is an excerpt of a post from Transom.org. It was written by Rob Rosenthal, lead teacher for the Transom Story Workshop. He also hosts the podcast How Sound. What he’s describing is a great exercise. It can free you of the inevitable limitations of journalism (you can’t make people say exactly what you want!) but
This piece by NPR’s Ailsa Chang took a completely wonky Congressional concept… and made it interesting. Check out the marginalia to see some of Ailsa’s tricks. The script is 2 pages long.
There are some elements that every broadcast radio script should have.
If you are new to radio, this post should help demystify the process. This guidance comes from Jonathan Kern, author of “Sound Reporting: The NPR Guide to Audio Journalism and Production.” It has been lightly edited. First, you need a story. That may seem obvious, but often people begin by proposing an idea – the
Jonathan Kern was a longtime NPR editor (among other things) and author of “Sound Reporting: The NPR Guide to Audio Journalism and Production.” What he describes as “long” are long pieces for news magazines — roughly, 6 minutes or more — but this guidance is helpful if you’re crafting an even longer story. The basics
Intros are the most important feature of your story — here’s how to write one.
Back in 2012, over the course of one day, All Things Considered host Melissa Block and producer Melissa Gray made this story about their own show. While the cast of characters has changed a bit and the ATC meeting now happens at 9:30am (10:00am was always pushing it, for a 4:00pm show!), this is the best
I think the goal is for all of us doing radio to make is sound effortless. To keep our essence in our reads and make the listener think we’re “just talking,” while knowing that the journey to that “just talking” place takes a lot. A lot of thought. A lot of practice. And a lot of time.
Why is it so hard to write how we talk? Here are some essentials tips to capture the human voice in your radio writing.
This checklist of questions will make your reporter’s story better — and editing it easier.
When it comes to writing for radio, where does Morning Edition host Steve Inskeep find inspiration? In great lyrics. The structure of a great song parallels a beautifully written radio story. That was the subject of a talk Steve gave to the staff of Morning Edition. He played examples of songs that get right to the
Every story has its own style of adventure. Here are different ways to take listeners on a journey.
Radio journalists love sound to create a sense of place in a scene – squeaky doors opening and closing, cash registers, train whistles, car honking, bird chirping. But if you really want to describe something in a compelling way, you’ll need more than the sound of a great squeaky floor. We’re looking for surprising moments that
Ambience: the sonic environment in which an event takes place. Also referred to as ambi. When it comes time to record ambience in the field, it’s important to capture different perspectives. It helps to think about these perspectives similarly to how you would think about photography. Here are the five approaches you should take. Wide shot Stand